Hydropower energy is a renewable resource. It follows the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Due to its minimal emission of greenhouse gases, hydroelectricity offers a means of fighting against climate change. Turbines are driven by the force of water created from a heavy flow rate caused by a high water head, transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy. As long as there is precipitation through rain or snow, there will be water to run the turbines.
Hydroelectric energy has many advantages:
- It provides a clean source of energy – producing power generates no waste or greenhouses gases which contribute to air pollution, acid rain and climate change
- It is very flexible – using a dam allows constant electricity generation and allows for the regulation of flow downstream
- It is very reliable – several designs are very simple and have proven reliable over time. As long as there is water there will be electricity
- It is extremely efficient – hydropower generation can be up to 90% efficient compared to less than 50% for fossil fuel generation or less than 10% for nuclear power generation
A dam would also provide the possibility of disposing production, which is beneficial in addressing demand fluctuations during periods of high consumption. This involves a long-term structure characterized by stable and known operating costs, prolonged useful life and well mastered technologies.
The construction of a dam has the alternative benefit of acting as a regulator during dry seasons, reducing environmental degradation and allowing access to water for agriculture, all while generating electricity that is accessible to the population.
In addition to the direct creation of jobs, energy-related projects also revitalize the regions through the creation of indirect jobs that are linked to the project. Energy is critical for development, as much to improve the populations’ quality of life as to help countries reduce their dependency on hydrocarbons and to stimulate their economic growth.