The sun is one of the most readily available and best-known energy sources of our civilisation. Technology allows us to transform solar energy into various forms of energy, including electricity. Photovoltaic solar energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic effect, the process responsible for this transformation. The use of electronic components such as photovoltaic cells enables the production of electricity, when exposed to light.
Hydropower energy is a renewable resource. It follows the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Due to its minimal emission of greenhouse gases, hydroelectricity offers a means of fighting against climate change. Turbines are driven by the force of water created from a heavy flow rate caused by a high water head, transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy. As long as there is precipitation through rain or snow, there will be water to run the turbines.
The biomass valorization is derived from the processing of agricultural and forestry residues or any other plant material. The use of biomass for electricity generation is mainly relevant for the agribusiness and forestry sectors which either burn their residuals in the open air or bury them, as they are not useful in their industrial processes. Therefore, it is possible to recover these residuals and convert same into either electricity or heat or both. Each technology used for converting biomass is characterized by its own energy efficiency. The choice between these technologies depends on energy needs, availability and quality of biomass,…
Waste-to-energy is very similar to bio-mass electricity production, although specifically used with municipal waste. Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into useable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas (LFG) recovery.